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Vesuvius volcano is part of the Campanian volcanic arc that stretches along the convergence of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates on the Italian peninsula and had been erupting for thousands of years. Like Pompey, Caesar was a skilled and highly respected military leader; Crassus was the wealthiest man in the Roman Empire. Villagers around the volcano had long learned to live with their volatile environment. For a time, Pompey controlled much of the Roman Empire while Caesar continued his campaigns abroad. After the defeat, Pompey fled to Egypt, where he was killed and his head cut off so that it could be sent to Caesar. Today, the excavation of Pompeii has been going on for almost three centuries, and scholars and tourists remain just as fascinated by the city’s eerie ruins as they were in the 18th century. He made a political alliance with Julius Caesar, married his daughter, and then fought against him for control of the empire. Pompey has been depicted in a number of films and television series, including "Julius Caesar," "Rome," "Ancient Rome: The Rise and Fall of an Empire," and "Spartacus: War of the Damned. A skilled warrior, Pompey became known as Pompey the Great. The city of Pompeii is famous because it was destroyed in 79 CE when a nearby volcano, Mount Vesuvius, erupted, covering it in at least 19 feet (6 metres) of ash and other volcanic debris. Mount Vesuvius, the volcano located to the northwest of the ancient Roman city of Pompeii, has erupted many times throughout recorded history. He was initially called Magnus (“the Great”) by his troops in Africa (82–81 bce), and he … He was especially admired by the nobles, and statues of him were placed in Rome as a tribute to his military and political accomplishments. For example, wealthy British families often built “Etruscan rooms” that mimicked those in Pompeiian villas. When Pompey's wife Julia (Caesar's daughter) died, one of the main links broke. As more and more ash fell, it clogged the air, making it difficult to breathe. Civil war continued in Rome when Quintus Sertorius, one of the Populares, launched an attack against the Sullans in the Western Roman Empire. Pompey fought Marius' men in Sicily and Africa. The subsequent excavation of Pompeii and the surrounding areas in the mid-18th century marked the start of the modern science of archaeology. 4. 6. By the turn of the first century A.D., the town of Pompeii, located about five miles from the mountain, was a flourishing resort for Rome’s most distinguished citizens. As it cooled, this tower of debris drifted to earth: first the fine-grained ash, then the lightweight chunks of pumice and other rocks. All Rights Reserved. Caesar was the victor of the battle at Pharsalus in Greece, where he was outnumbered by Pompey's forces. For those who stayed behind, however, conditions soon grew worse. The modern town (comune) of Pompei (pop. Kevin Bright8357. The son of a great military leader, he escaped family intrigues to take the throne, but his more, Julius Caesar was a renowned general, politician and scholar in ancient Rome who conquered the vast region of Gaul and helped initiate the end of the Roman Republic when he became dictator of the Roman Empire. Greek influence was challenged, however, when the Etruscans came into Campania in the 7th century. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Pompeii was destroyed because of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius on August 24, 79 CE. However, as a punishment for Pompeii’s part in the war, a colony of Roman veterans was established there under Publius Sulla, the nephew of the Roman general. 3. M.A., Linguistics, University of Minnesota. Europe’s wealthiest and most fashionable families displayed art and reproductions of objects from the ruins, and drawings of Pompeii’s buildings helped shape the architectural trends of the era. N.S. and eventually the Bay of Naples became an attraction for wealthy vacationers from Rome who relished the Campania coastline. ", Biography of Pompey the Great, Roman Statesman. Access hundreds of hours of historical video, commercial free, with HISTORY Vault. The eruption that destroyed Pompeii occurred on August 24, 79 CE. A 2014 Pompeii preservation effort cost an estimated $145 million, the same price as roughly 362 Lamborghini Aventadors. They found that the ashes had acted as a marvelous preservative: Underneath all that dust, Pompeii was almost exactly as it had been almost 2,000 years before. (The writer Pliny the Younger, who watched the eruption from across the bay, compared this “cloud of unusual size and appearance” to a pine tree that “rose to a great height on a sort of trunk and then split off into branches”; today, geologists refer to this type of volcano as a “Plinean eruption.”). It was terrifying–“I believed I was perishing with the world,” Pliny wrote, “and the world with me”–but not yet lethal: Most Pompeiians had plenty of time to flee. Pompey then married Cornelia, the daughter of the Roman consul Metellus Scipio. The cities had not yet recovered from this catastrophe when final destruction overcame them 17 years later. Then, a “pyroclastic surge”–a 100-miles-per-hour surge of superheated poison gas and pulverized rock–poured down the side of the mountain and swallowed everything and everyone in its path. There are many remains of public buildings, generally grouped in three areas: the Forum, located in the large level area to the southwest; the Triangular Forum, standing on a height at the edge of the south wall overlooking the bay; and the Amphitheatre and Palaestra, in the east.

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