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His building of palaces, extravagant clothing, and taste for opera and other grand musical productions led to his being given the title "the Magnificent". conferred the princely title, which had previously been limited to the eldest-born of the house, on all his descendants, male and female. In 1829, he received from the Grand Duchy of Baden, the Order of Fidelity in 1829 and the Grand Cross of the Order of the Zähringer Lion. Starting in 1803, they were watered by a pump operated by a steam engine imported from England—the first steam engine in the Austrian Empire.[10]. Miklós, German language:Nikolaus II Esterházy; 1765–1833) was a wealthy Hungarian prince. Instead he was an abject failure. Among the artists represented were Andrea del Sarto, Corregio, Raphael, and Claude Lorrain. Mraz describes the end of his life as "ignominious". [21], Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition, 1910, article "Esterhazy", The restoration began in 1795, after Nikolaus had returned from his Italian art-collecting journey (June 1795) and Haydn had returned from his final visit to London (August). Nikolaus remodeled the family palace at Eisenstadt, converting it from Baroque to Classical style. Nikolaus was also active in the musical life of Vienna. Lady Jersey was a close friend of his mother Princess Maria Theresia of Thurn and Taxis, who served with her for many years as a patroness of Almack's, the centre of London's social scene. In 1809 Napoleon Bonaparte of France occupied Vienna and offered to Prince Nicholas Ferdinand the crown of Hungary. The Prince did not like the work and the comment he made at the premiere led Beethoven to depart in a huff. He served Haydn posthumously in 1820 by his vigorous—though unsuccessful—efforts to recover the composer's stolen skull. Like his father, he was also a Captain of the Hungarian Noble Life Guard, from December 1803 until his death in 1833.[3]. In 1802, he was appointed Colonel and Proprietor (Inhaber) of the 32nd Infantry Regiment, a position he held also until his death. There he met his wife, Sarah Frederica Caroline Child Villiers, daughter of George Child Villiers, 5th Earl of Jersey, and relatives of the famous George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham. Of his military career, Robbins Landon notes[2] that he achieved, "considerable distinction, particularly as Colonel at the Battle of Kolin (1757) in the Seven Years' War where, with great personal courage, he led the wavering cavalry troops to victory. He was promoted to major general on 13 May 1796, and to Lieutenant-Field Marshal in 1803; in 1817, he was promoted to Feldzeugmeister. The prince was at least at some level a musician (a portrait of him by Fischer shows him playing the clarinet)[11] and he spent some of his wealth as a patron of music. He died in 1833 in Como, Italy. His father Anton was the son of Nikolaus I, whom he succeeded as reigning prince on the latter's death in 1790. Nikolaus did not hire Haydn, but rather "inherited" him from his brother, who had hired him as Vice Kapellmeister in 1761. Nikolaus was born in Vienna 12 December 1765, the son of Prince Anton Esterházy and his first wife, Maria Theresia, Countess Erdödy de Monyorokerek et Monoszlo (1745–1782). His name is given in various languages: German (the language of the Habsburg Court) "Nikolaus Josef", Hungarian (probably his native language) "Miklós József," and (in English contexts) the English form of his name, "Nicholas". The former Esterházy painting today form an integral part of the collection of the Hungarian National Gallery and can be visited in their rooms. He also served as an imperial and royal Chamberlain and Privy councillor. Nikolaus was forced to sell the family's collection of paintings to the Kingdom of Hungary, and it still constitutes the core of the collection of the present-day Museum of Fine Arts in Budapest. Nikolaus was Napoleon's candidate to serve as King of an independent Hungary. Prince Miklós", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nikolaus_II,_Prince_Esterházy&oldid=985771117, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Maria Josepha, Princess von und zu Liechtenstein, Maria Theresia, Countess Erdödy de Monyorokerek et Monoszlo. Count Nikolaus Erdődy of Monyorókerék and Monoszló, 9. During the period before his brother Paul Anton's death, Nikolaus held the title of Count. Under the influence of his wife, Nikolaus gradually changed his attitude and eventually was more respectful to his Kapellmeister. '[5], Nikolaus did not spend all of his income on himself; Karl Geiringer, in his biography of Haydn, documents a program of social welfare maintained by the Prince for his employees: "Prince Nicolaus often showed himself to be generous and kindhearted and by and large displayed a degree of social-mindedness uncommon at that time. Unlike his ancestors, Nikolaus didn't spent his youth in the Schloss Esterháza in Hungary, but in England, where his father, Paul III Anton, Prince Esterházy, was Ambassador for the Austrian Emperor.Nikolaus married Lady Sarah Frederica Caroline Child Villiers (1822–1853), a daughter of George Child Villiers, 5th Earl of Jersey, and his wife the former Lady Sarah Sophia Fane. In 1866, he succeeded his father, but under very difficult circumstances. These are likewise among his least remembered works. In 1829, he received from the Grand Duchy of Baden, the Order of Fidelity in 1829 and the Grand Cross of the Order of the Zähringer Lion. Faithful to the Esterházy tradition of loyalty to their Emperor, Nikolaus refused the offer, and indeed he went further and raised a regiment of volunteers to help defend the Empire, an action he had previously taken in 1797. At one point he issued "a detailed printed document to his subordinates, containing all manner of ... instructions and advice ('locks on granaries must be subject to checks'; 'officials must be polite'; 'intoxication is the greatest vice'; 'the bee-hives are to be counted'; 'officials must lead God-fearing lives'). Of the 106 symphonies, those following the series written for Count Morzin (Haydn's first employer) and for Paul Anton, and before the Paris symphonies of the late 1780s, were written specifically at Nikolaus's instigation. Mraz, Gerda (2009a) Esterházy, Prince Nicolaus II. Few composers can ever have claimed to have possessed such an incubator for their creations, and the symphonies that Haydn wrote for this ensemble can fairly be regarded as Nikolaus's gift to posterity. Prince Nicholas III. In Jones, David Wyn, Thomas Günter (2010) "Esterházy". He continued to spend freely both on art works and on his brothel, and ultimately the law intervened, subjecting him to a sequestration order (1832). The Prince's passions cost him his fortune but gave Hungary a fine collection of art He supported a modest hospital in Eisenstadt and another in Eszterháza, which were available to the court employees. [5] Nikolaus spent some years trying to find a home for his collection (and also protecting it during the Napoleonic invasions of 1805 and 1809; at one point in the latter year it was shipped down the Danube to Pest for safety). The Prince at first spent only summers there, but gradually came to spend ten months of the year—much to the distress of his musicians; see the tale of the "Farewell" Symphony. George Child Villiers, 5th Earl of Jersey, Princess Maria Theresia of Thurn and Taxis, Princess Maria Josepha Hermengilde of Liechtenstein, Alexander Ferdinand, 3rd Prince of Thurn and Taxis, Karl Anselm, 4th Prince of Thurn and Taxis, Margravine Sophie Christine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, Karl Alexander, 5th Prince of Thurn and Taxis, Princess Marie Auguste of Thurn and Taxis, Princess Maria Theresia of Thurn and Taxis, Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg, Charles II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Princess Elisabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen, Countess Maria Louise Albertine of Leiningen-Falkenburg-Dagsburg, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nikolaus_III,_Prince_Esterházy&oldid=985771122, Articles containing Hungarian-language text, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 17.

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