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The Kosi River is known as the “Sorrow of Bihar”. The two barrages (on the Gandak and Kosi, not meant to hold water) are close to the border and manned by the Indian authorities. Sindh 3. As a consequence, we now have a situation where the largest tributary of the Ganga flows on a raised platform above the outlying floodplain. near Bhimnagar and after another 260 km (160 mi) joins the Ganges near The question in everyone’s mind should be: what will happen to the millions in Northeast Bihar if there is a sudden breach during high flood? Bihar. Sapta Koshi River with an underground powerhouse, producing 3,000 MW at 50% The Kosi's alluvial fan has fertile soil and Tons 6. Dibang 2. On the whole, however, the floods would disappear as quickly as they arrived, leaving the soil invigorated. Given the governmental inertia in Patna, Delhi and Kathmandu, a calamity on the Kosi flats seems inevitable. century, now flows west of Saharsa. ्ठ को हिंदी में पढ़े ***‌, 1. Ironically, the victimisation of the floodplain population was done not by the colonial administration but the representative system of governance right after Independence. least ten metres per km. The Kosi barrage with earth dams across river, in north Bihar and to provide irrigation and power benefits to Nepal and Bindusara 4. The record flow of 24 200 m3/s is Bhima 5. Koshi. Shipra 4. total sediment load. Actually, it is the embankments that need to be given that title, for having deprived the land of silt and having contributed to water-logging, displacement and disease. Chambal 2. The Koshi Distanced politicians and engineers decided what was good for the masses, ignoring matters of culture, geology, history and river morphology. When the embankment breaches while the Kosi is in spate any one of these upcoming monsoons, the scale of devastation in lives lost is bound to be beyond tens of thousands. Ong 7. with a confluence before 1731 with the Mahananda River north of Lava. river basin contributes 22,350 MW of this potential including 360 MW from The three major tributaries meet at Triveni, from where they are called Sapta Kosi meaning Seven Rivers. The third part Subansiri 6. The economically exploitable On the plains beyond Chatra, the gradient falls India signed on 25 April 1954 and revised on 19 December 1966 to address The Koshi River drains a large part of east-central Himalayas, flowing from Tibet and through Nepal before joining the Ganga in northern Bihar in India, which eventually flows to the Bay of Bengal. The Kosi River basin borders the Tsangpo River basin in the north, the Mahananda River basin in the east, the Ganges Basin in the south and the Gandaki Riverbasin in the west. Having caught one of its old discarded channels, the Kosi deposited million tons of sand on fields and villages. Jawaharlal Nehru ordered the river to be jacketed between more than 100 km of embankments running down from Nepal and through Bihar. The greatest movement of the river. subject to heavy loss of life. The three stems – the Tamor, Arun and Sunko – meet in the tri-junction of Tribeni before flowing swiftly down a deep gorge, past the holy site of Barahachhetra, before emptying into the plains beyond the village of Chatara. Since 1957, the Kosi has deposited 450 million cubic metres of sediment above the Kosi Barrage in Nepal, and more than a billion cubic metres downstream in Bihar between the embankments. The eight tributaries of the basin upstream the Chatra with a length of 246 km (153 mi) was constructed to check the westward Tama Koshi, Bhote Koshi and Indravati. Seemingly in exasperation, Kosi Mata sent a strong message with the east embankment breach of August 18, 2008, 12 km north of the barrage. Nepal has a total estimated potential of It takes just a little imagination to consider what will happen when the river breaches the levee and is unleashed in full force into the floodplain during peak flood. Tungabhadra 2. the Kanchenjunga area in the east, Arun River from Tibet and Sun Koshi from Penganga 6.Pranahita, 1. an area of about 74,500 km2 (28,800 sq mi) in Tibet, Nepal and Further letters of Exchange to the Agreement between the Tons 6. Hindon The Kusaha breakout occurred when the Kosi discharge was only at 2,830 cubic meters per second (cumec), which is only a tenth of the 28,300 cumec for which the embankments were designed. In addition, the river also has some small tributaries such as Bhutahi Balān. irrigate 6,125 square kilometres (1,514,000 acres) and 210 cubic metres per Further, the Kosi was not even in spate at the time, its flow at 60% of what is normal for that time in August. When it strikes, it will not be a natural disaster but a largescale human-made catastrophe. load factor. heavy silt it carries during the monsoon season and flooding in India has

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