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Examples include the crime syndicates of Russia, Sicily, and the United States, prison gangs, and the diamond trade (Salter 2002). Outline. [17] The use of "savage" as a classification is modernly known as "tribal" or "pre-literate" where it was usually referred as a derogatory term as the "civilization" scale became more common. Find out! Ethnocentrism is a slippery concept that different disciplines and individuals use in diverse, inconsistent, and incompatible ways. Mead and Benedict were two of Boas's students. [15] Edward Said's orientalist concept represented how Western reactions to non-Western societies were based on an "unequal power relationship" that Western peoples developed due to colonization and the influence it held over non-Western societies. These ethnic distinctions and sub-divisions serve to define each ethnicity's unique cultural identity. [25] Scholars have recently demonstrated that individuals are more likely to develop in-group identification and out-group negatively in response to intergroup competition, conflict, or threat. the belief in the inherent superiority of one's own ethnic group or culture. [14] Examples including how historically, foreigners would be characterized as "Barbarians," or how China believed their nation to be the "Empire of the Center" and viewed foreigners as privileged subordinates. [1] In common usage, it can also simply mean any culturally biased judgment. Some would simply call it cultural ignorance. [17] Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, a German philosopher, justified Western colonization by reasoning that since the non-Western societies were "primitive" and "uncivilized," their culture and history was not worth conserving and should allow Westernization.[18]. [ethnocentrism not applicable to all branches of psychology] The implications are usually far less for biological psychology. Trust, Kinship, and Ethnicity. [12] Also, ethnocentrism can helps us to explain the construction of identity. [31] Since ethnocentrism implicated a strong identification with one's in-group, it mostly automatically leads to negative feelings and stereotyping to the members of the outgroup, which can be confused with racism. Ethnocentrism definition, the belief in the inherent superiority of one's own ethnic group or culture. Early social scientists in the nineteenth century operated from an ethnocentric point of view. China's very name is composed of ideographs meaning "center" and "country" respectively, and traditional Chinese world maps show China in the center. What Is The Difference Between “It’s” And “Its”? [8], Several theories have been reinforced through the social and psychological understandings of ethnocentrism including T.W Adorno's Authoritarian Personality Theory (1950), Donald T. Campbell's Realistic Group Conflict Theory (1972), and Henri Tajfel's Social Identity Theory (1986). This article covers anthropology, political science and especially sociology. Definition of Ethnocentrism. Both urged anthropologists to conduct ethnographic fieldwork in order to overcome their ethnocentrism. Evolutionary psychology posits that the reason for these groupings stems from the alignment of interests among members of these groups due to their genetic similarity. Various researchers study ethnocentricism as it pertains to their specialized fields. [29], Ethnocentrism also influences consumer preference over which goods they purchase. [4] In his 1906 book, Folkways, Sumner describes ethnocentrism as "the technical name for the view of things in which one's own group is the center of everything, and all others are scaled and rated with reference to it." The ethnocentric person will see those cultures other than their birth culture as being not only different but also wrong to some degree. [4] Within relation to enculturation, ethnocentrism is said to be a transgenerational problem since stereotypes and similar perspectives can be enforced and encouraged as time progresses.

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